A friend of mine says he is a Christian, but does not believe in 'resurrection'. Do Christians truly believe that Jesus died and then rose from the grave?
" And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures:" 1 Corinthians 15:4
"Who is he that condemneth? It is Christ that died, yea rather, that is risen again, who is even at the right hand of God, who also maketh intercession for us." Romans 8:34
"Looking unto Jesus the author and finisher of our faith; who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising the shame, and is set down at the right hand of the throne of God." Hebrews 12:2
"That if thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved." Romans 10:9 is the criterion for a person to be saved (from eternal punishment) and to be called a follower of Christ.
If one has never believed that Jesus actually died and rose again he was never a Christian in the first place.
In Christianity, 'faith' plays an important role to understand spiritual things:
"So then faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word of God." Romans 10:17. "But the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God: for they are foolishness unto him: neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned."1 Corinthians 2:14
According to the Bible, a natural man is not Christian.
"Now if Christ be preached that he rose from the dead, how say some among you that there is no resurrection of the dead? But if there be no resurrection of the dead, then is Christ not risen: And if Christ be not risen, then is our preaching vain, and your faith is also vain. Yea, and we are found false witnesses of God; because we have testified of God that he raised up Christ: whom he raised not up, if so be that the dead rise not. For if the dead rise not, then is not Christ raised: And if Christ be not raised, your faith is vain; ye are yet in your sins. Then they also which are fallen asleep in Christ are perished. If in this life only we have hope in Christ, we are of all men most miserable." I Corinthians 15:12-19
So the question is, "can a person be a Christian and not believe that Jesus literally rose from the dead?" The answer is "NO".